How to cite underworld codes

The preferred way to cite our code is to include 1) a reference to the defining publication for that particular version and 2) to include the zenodo doi for the actual version of the code you are using. If you wish to cite the algorithms that have been used but not the actual implementation then see Algorithms below.

Note that the above DOI URLs will always resolve to the latest  Underworld releases. DOIs for previous versions are also available through zenodo. If you have modified the code, you should create a fork and publish your own DOI.

Underworld Geodynamics

  • Beucher, Romain, Louis Moresi, Julian Giordani, John Mansour, Dan Sandiford, Rebecca Farrington, Luke Mondy, et al. “UWGeodynamics: A Teaching and Research Tool for Numerical Geodynamic Modelling.” Journal of Open Source Software, April 11, 2019.
  • Beucher, Romain, Louis Moresi, Julian Giordani, John Mansour, Dan Sandiford, Rebecca Farrington, Luke Mondy, et al. (2019, August 13). underworldcode/UWGeodynamics: UWGeodynamics v2.8 (Version v2.8.1).


  • Mansour, J., Giordani, J., Moresi, L., Beucher, R., Kaluza, O.,  Velic, M., Farrington, R., Quenette, S., Beall, A., 2020, Underworld2:  Python Geodynamics Modelling for Desktop, HPC and Cloud, Journal of Open  Source Software, 5(47), 1797,
  • Moresi, L., S. Quenette, V. Lemiale, C. Mériaux, B. Appelbe, and H. -B. Mühlhaus. “Computational Approaches to Studying Non-Linear Dynamics of the Crust and Mantle.” Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Computational Challenges in the Earth Sciences, 163, no. 1 (August 15, 2007): 69–82.
  • Moresi, L., John Mansour, Julian Giordani, Rebecca Farrington, Romain Beucher et al,  (2019, September 2). underworldcode/underworld2: v2.8.1b (Version v2.8.1b). Zenodo.


  • Moresi, L.-N., and V.S. Solomatov. “Numerical Investigation of 2D Convection with Extremely Large Viscosity Variations.” Physics of Fluids 7, no. 9 (1995): 2154–62.
  • Moresi, L., F. Dufour, and H.-B. Mühlhaus. “A Lagrangian Integration Point Finite Element Method for Large Deformation Modeling of Viscoelastic Geomaterials.” Journal of Computational Physics 184, no. 2 (2003): 476–97.
  • Moresi, L., H.-B. Mühlhaus, V. Lemiale, and D. May. “Incompressible Viscous Formulations for Deformation and Yielding of the Lithosphere.” Geological Society, London, Special Publications 282, no. 1 (January 1, 2007): 457–72.
  • May, D.A., and L. Moresi. “Preconditioned Iterative Methods for Stokes Flow Problems Arising in Computational Geodynamics.” Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 171, no. 1–4 (2008): 33–47.
  • Velić, M., D. May, and L. Moresi. “A Fast Robust Algorithm for Computing Discrete Voronoi Diagrams.” Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms 8, no. 3 (2009): 343–55.